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Rocket Propellants
Sugar & Blackpowder Based

Rocket Candy

Rocket candy is a term used for a variety of Potassium Nitrate/Sugar based compositions. The Composition listed below is a good place to start.
The Potassium Nitrate and sugar etc. are cooked together over Heat in an electric Frypan/Skillet or over an electric element Untill they melt together into a "Candy". The Red Iron Oxides Acts as a catalist an increases the burn rate
Here is a link to James Yawns Website for more Information
Here is a link to Richard Nakkas Website for more Information

Standard  Rocket Candy Formula
Ingreidients Should be as Fine as Possible anr are cooked together in an electric Frypan/Skillet or over an electric element Untill they melt together into a "Candy". It Can Then be Moulded Before it Cools into Fuel grains or Whatever Shape is Desired

ChemicalQuantity %
Potassium Nitrate65
Red Iron Oxide+ 3 - 5

Rocket Candy #2
From recreational pyrotechnics

It is best prepared by melting the potassium nitrate and sugar together, but this is a dangerous operation and could result in accidential ignition during preperation. Dry mixing is possible and much safer but produces lower quality propellant.
- If it is prepared by melting the components together, the sugar must be molten FIRST. Do it outside and on a low heat source.
Then take it off the heat source turn it off, go away from everything hot and stir in the milled KNO3
Wear proper safety stuff! This way it can be prepared much safer than just mixing them and heat them together.

ChemicalQuantity %
Potassium Nitrate74.50

Sugar Propellant

Sugar Rocket Propellant
Ball Mill for Best Results
Not as fast burning as Rocket Candy, only really usefull in cored rockets

ChemicalQuantity %
Potassium Nitrate63

Black Powder

Standard Blackpowder can be used as Rocket Propellant
It Can be Tuned to Your Tooling/Tubes by Varying Whether it is screen mixed or milled and also by varying milling times. The type of charcoal used will also affect the burn rate. Using Softer lighter Charcoals such as willow or Balsa will increase the burn rate

ChemicalQuantity %
Potasium Nitrate75

Black Powder Rocket Engine
Tube Size Chart

Blackpowder Rockets are Usually Described in oz's or LB's
The table below shows whatthese sizes relate to in terms of tube sizes 

SizeTube Size
2oz  3/8" x 2-3/4"
4 oz1/2" x 5"
8 oz  5/8" x 6-1/4"
1 lb3/4" x 7-1/2"
2 lb  7/8" x 10"
3 lb1" x 10"
4 lb  1-1/4" x 12"
6 lb  1-1/2" x 16"

1LB Rocket Propellant

Frozentech / Painter

Ball mill 45 minutes to 1 hour. Will also work screened.
Any 40-100 mesh Al should work for a bright silver spark tail. Coarser charcoal adds length and gold color to the rocket tail.
Dampen lightly and granulate through a 10 mesh screen without Adding Dextrin
This will reduce dust while ramming or pressing.

A modified version of the Ralph Degn 1LB / 2LB rocket composition. The original used 4 meshes of charcoal from airfloat up to 20 mesh.

ChemicalQuantity %
Potassium Nitrate56.07
Charcoal (Airfloat)12.62
Charcoal (36-80 mesh)12.62
Aluminium (Mixed Firefly)6.54

1-3 oz Rocket

George W Weingart

ChemicalQuantity %
Potassium Nitrate58.06

4-8 oz Rocket

George W Weingart

ChemicalQuantity %
Potassium Nitrate55.17

1-3 lb Rocket

George W Weingart

ChemicalQuantity %
Potassium Nitrate51.61

4-8 lb Rocket

George W Weingart

ChemicalQuantity %
Potassium Nitrate54.55

Estes Class 'C'

Composition from 1994 US Dept. of Labour Material Safety Data Sheet

ChemicalQuantity %
Potassium Nitrate71.79

Propellant - RP 

Alan Yates
All the chemicals except the Aluminium are ball milled for at least 2 hours. The Aluminium is then screened in using a 60 mesh screen.
The meal may be used as is but it is preferable to moisten with a 25% solution of alcohol & granulate. This granulation procedure makes it much easier to work with while loading into cases and also makes it somewhat more powerful.
The spherical Aluminium is not for effect, but rather as a phlegmatizer. It does produce an interesting tail effect which is probably a glitter related reaction despite the fairly low sulfur content

ChemicalQuantity %
Potassium Nitrate62.07
Charcoal (airfloat)20.69
Aluminium (-325 mesh, spherical)6.90

German Rockets


ChemicalQuantity %
Potassium Nitrate60
Charcoal (150 mesh)25

American Rockets


ChemicalQuantity %
Potassium Nitrate59
Charcoal (150 mesh)31

KNO3 propellant

Chris Beauregard

ChemicalQuantity %
Potassium Nitrate72

NaNO3 propellant

Chris Beauregard

ChemicalQuantity %
Sodium Nitrate69